[51] Transportability or storability?

It could make sense to match fluctuations between commercial buildings, where heat demand is highest during the day, and residential schemes, where it’s higher in the mornings and evenings.

This concept could benefit millions of EU citizens with locally produced heat, e.g. from solar collectors, biomass-fired boilers, or micro-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants.

Rather than every building optimizing its own heat supply, will the future bring communal heat services through local cooperatives or small-scale utilities?

[26] From energy efficiency to energy flexibility

Will we have thermal power stations in a low-carbon economy? If so, a number of conditions need to be in place (see [24]). What will be the economic performance of a biogas-fired, combined-cycle thermal power station? How will it compare to the cost of a variable renewable electricity power plant with an energy storage solution?

Today, beyond efficiency, flexibility is key for utilities to be profitable. Capacity remuneration mechanisms are naturally evolving from rewarding base load towards incentivising flexibility in all its forms.