[132] Electrification as an efficiency option

Out of the 150 Mtoe per year sourced by industry from fossil fuels, at least a third could be displaced by (clean) electricity in an economically profitable manner. Not to mention the important CO2 savings.

This increases electricity demand by about 170 TWh/year, roughly 5% of total demand, which should be perfectly manageable by the electricity system.

[57] Energy transition and circular economy

Green manufacturing is not only about decarbonizing industry’s energy system. It is equally about using sustainable material flows that are at least carbon-neutral.

Reducing waste and recycling materials have to play a major role. But with increasingly complex, miniaturised products using multiple, composite materials, material recovery results in new challenges. Examples of such products are personal electronic devices, batteries, solar panels etc.

Low carbon material streams are likely to become one of the major remaining challenges in an 80-95% greenhouse gas reduction scenario.

[54] Managing energy

Energy use of industrial processes is receiving increasing attention from regulators, driving companies to deliver incremental energy efficiency improvements as part of their long-term energy plans. The latest solutions available include energy management systems, energy audits, flexibility analysis and establishing an energy-saving culture.

Case studies indicate short-term energy savings ranging from 5 to 10% of energy consumption without much investment. Beyond this, investment programs can realize deeper energy savings in the right market framework.