Well over two thirds of citizens in Western Europe live in cities. In some countries, it’s even over 90%. Considering the compactness of dwellings, the availability of public transport, shorter travelling distances and the efficient use of land, there is a lot to say for urban sustainability.
Both urban and rural communities have their own, very different sustainability challenges.
Land use from different energy sources varies two orders of magnitude. Over the past decades, the impact of the energy transition on natural landscapes has become increasingly apparent. The mitigating effect of energy efficiency on land use is however rarely mentioned in policy discussions, probably because of its distributed nature, both in space and time.
It is however a fertile ground for academic studies 😎.