This report demonstrated how improved energy productivity can drive growth, create jobs and spread well-being throughout society. To make this happen, we should accelerate the transition. ‘The world is deploying new technology much too slowly to keep up with rising energy demand’.
Considering the multiple benefits and vast potential of energy efficiency, why are we still discussing it in Brussels? The answer lies in the complexity of energy efficiency at the crossroads of regulation [13, 20], markets , technology  and psychology .
Primary energy factors deliver important signals to the markets, act as key drivers for sector coupling, and incentivise certain technologies and fuels while discouraging others.
PEF calculation methods can lead to (un)intended promotion of fossil fuels over renewable sources.
Within the EPBD, a proper PEF calculation is essential to produce a meaningful energy performance certificate.
Due to the increasing share of (especially non-combustible) renewable power, total primary energy gradually loses its function as an efficiency indicator.
It could make sense to match fluctuations between commercial buildings, where heat demand is highest during the day, and residential schemes, where it’s higher in the mornings and evenings.
This concept could benefit millions of EU citizens with locally produced heat, e.g. from solar collectors, biomass-fired boilers, or micro-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants.
Rather than every building optimizing its own heat supply, will the future bring communal heat services through local cooperatives or small-scale utilities?